Education study program
Faculty of language and literature
State university of makassar
1.interjection n : a word or phrase used in exclamation (as “Heavens!”, “Dear me!”). See part of speech.
3 .koine n [Gk koinê, fr. fem. of koinós common] 1. cap: the Greek language commonly spoken and written in eastern Mediterranean countries in the Hellenistic and Roman periods; 2. a dialect or language of a region that has become the common or standard language of a larger area.
4 .labial n : a consonant (like [p], [b], [m], [f]) uttered with the participation of one or both lips. See more at consonant.
5 .labiodental n : a consonant uttered with the participation of the lip and teeth. See more at consonant.
6 .language n : 1. the words, their pronunciation, and the methods of combining them used and understood by a community; 2. audible, articulate, meaningful sound as produced by the action of the vocal organs; 3. a systematic means of communicating ideas or feelings by the use of conventionalized signs, sounds, gestures, or marks having understood meanings; 4. the suggestion by objects, actions, or conditions of associated ideas or feelings; 5. a formal system of signs and symbols (as FORTRAN or a calculus in logic) including rules for the formation and transformation of admissible expressions; 6. machine language; 7. form or manner of verbal expression; specif: style; 8. the vocabulary and phraseology belonging to an art or a department of knowledge; 9. the study of language esp. as a school subject.
See also analytic, synthetic.
7 .liaison n : the pronunciation of an otherwise absent consonant sound at the end of the first of two consecutive words the second of which begins with a vowel sound and follows without pause.
For examples see the Liaison in French.
9 .lingua franca n : auxiliary or compromise language used between groups having no other language in common. Examples are English and French for diplomatic purposes. The term lingua franca “Frankish language” was first applied to a jargon or pidgin based on southern French and Italian, developed by crusaders and traders for use in the eastern Mediterranean during the Middle Ages. In the post-Renaissance period of European exploration, many other such contact languages developed–e.g., Indo-Portuguese (Ceylon), Annamite-French (Indochina), Papiamento of Curaçao (based on Spanish and Portuguese), etc. Insofar as a European language was simplified or distorted in pronunciation or grammar, it became a pidgin. When such a pidgin or other lingua franca replaced the original language of a speech community, it became a creole.
10 .linguistic atlas n : a publication containing a set of maps on which speech variations are recorded — called also dialect atlas.
12 .linguistic geography n : local or regional variations of a language or dialect studied as a field of knowledge — called also dialect geography.
15 .loan translation n : see calque.
16 .locative n : a grammatical case that denotes place or the place where or wherein. See also case.
17 .loose sentence n : a sentence in which the principal clause comes first and subordinate modifiers or trailing elements follow. See also sentence.
19 .mass noun n : a noun (as sand or water) that characteristically denotes in many languages a homogeneous substance or a concept without subdivisions and that in English is preceded in indefinite singular constructions by some rather than a or an — compare count noun. See also noun.
23 .modal auxiliary n : an auxiliary verb (as can, must, might, may) that is characteristically used with a verb of predication and expresses a modal modification and that in English differs formally from other verbs in lacking -s and -ing forms.
24 .modification n : a limitation or qualification of the meaning of a word by another word, by an affix, or by internal change.
26 .monosyllable n : a word of one syllable. See syllable.
27 .mood n : distinction of form or a particular set of inflectional forms of a verb to express whether the action or state it denotes is conceived as fact or in some other manner (as command, possibility, or wish).
See also imperative, infinitive, indicative, optative, potential, subjunctive, verb.
28 .morpheme n : a distinctive collocation of phonemes (as the free form pin or the bound form -s of pins) that contains no smaller meaningful parts. See also linguistic form.
29 .mutation n : see umlaut.
20 .nasal n : a sound uttered with the soft palate lowered and with passage of air through the nose.
33 .nonrestrictive clause n : a descriptive clause that is not essential to the definiteness of the meaning of the word it modifies — as who is retired in “my father, who is retired, does volunteer work”. See also clause.
34 .noun n : any member of a class of words that typically can be combined with determiners to serve as the subject of a verb, can be interpreted as singular or plural (and in some languages dual), can be replaced with a pronoun, and refer to an entity, quality, state, action, or concept. See substantive.
See also common noun, count noun, mass noun, noun phrase, proper noun, verbal noun.
See also case, gender, inflection, number.
See part of speech.
35 .noun phrase n : a phrase formed by a noun and all its modifiers and determiners; broadly: any syntactic element (as a clause, clitic, pronoun, or zero element) with a noun’s function (as the subject of a verb or the object of a verb or preposition). See also noun.
37 .object n : 1. a noun or noun equivalent (as a pronoun, gerund, or clause) denoting the goal or result of the action of a verb; 2. a noun or noun equivalent in a prepositional phrase.
See also direct object, indirect object,object complement, subject.
38 .object complement n : a noun, adjective, or pronoun used in the predicate as complement to a verb and as qualifier of its direct object — as chairman in “we elected him chairman”. See also complement, object.
39 .occlusive n : see stop.
40 .optative n : a verbal mood that is expressive of wish or desire. See also mood.
41 .orthography n : 1. the art of writing words with the proper letters according to standard usage; 2. the representation of the sounds of a language by written or printed symbols; 3. a part of language study that deals with letters and spelling.
46 .part of speech n : a traditional class of words distinguished according to the kind of idea denoted and the function performed in a sentence. See adjective, adverb, conjunction, interjection, noun, pronoun, verb.
47 .participle n : a word having the characteristics of both verb and adjective; esp. an English verbal form that has the function of an adjective and at the same time shows such verbal features as tense and voice and capacity to take an object. See past participle, present participle.
49 .past participle n : a participle that typically expresses completed action, that is traditionally one of the principal parts of the verb, and that is traditionally used in English in the formation of perfect tenses in the active voice and of all tenses in the passive voice.
51 .past tense n : a verb tense expressing action or state in or as if in the past; it is considered:
— expressive of elapsed time, as wrote in “on arriving I wrote a letter” (this is called aoristin the Greek grammar);
— expressing action or state in progress or continuance or habitually done or customarily occurring at a past time, as was writing in “I was writing while he dictated” or loved in “their sons loved fishing” (it is described in many languages as imperfect tense).
See also tense, imperfect tense, perfect tense.
52 .perfect participle n : see past participle.
55 .penultimate adj : of or relating to a penult.
58 .period n : 1. an utterance from one full stop to another, sentence; 2. a well-proportioned sentence of several clauses; 3. periodic sentence; 4. the full pause with which the utterance of a sentence closes; 5. a point (.) used to mark the end (as of a declarative sentence or an abbreviation) — often used interjectionally to emphasize that no more need be said <I don’t remember — ~>. See also sentence.