Audio Lingual Method
Audio-lingual Method: Or the Army Method or also the New Key is a style of teaching used in teaching foreign languages. It is based on behaviorist ideology, which professes that certain traits of living things, and in this case humans, could be trained through a system of reinforcement—correct use of a trait would receive positive feedback while incorrect use of that trait would receive negative feedback. This approach to language learning was similar to another, earlier method called the Direct Method. Like the Direct Method, the Audio-Lingual Method advised that students be taught a language directly, without using the students”” native language to explain new words or grammar in the target language. However, unlike the Direct Method, the Audio-lingual Method didn’t focus on teaching vocabulary. Rather, the teacher drilled students in the use of grammar. Applied to language instruction, and often within the context of the language lab, this means that the instructor would present the correct model of a sentence and the students would have to repeat it. The teacher would then continue by presenting new words for the students to sample in the same structure. In audio-lingualism, there is no explicit grammar instruction—everything is simply memorized in form.
The idea is for the students to practice the particular construct until they can use it spontaneously. In this manner, the lessons are built on static drills in which the students have little or no control on their own output; the teacher is expecting a particular response and not providing that will result in a student receiving negative feedback. Charles Fries, the director of the English Language Institute at the University of Michigan, the first of its kind in the United States, believed that learning structure or grammar was the starting point for the student.
The aim of this method is:
1. to make students able to use the target language communicatively and automatically without stopping to think; and
2. to help students to acquire the structural patterns.
The principles of this method are:
1. Instructions are given in the target language.
2. Language forms occur within a context.
3. Students’ native language interferes as little as possible with the students’ attempts to acquire the target language.
4. Teaching is directed to provide students with a native-speaker-like model.
5. Analogy provides a better foundation for language learning than analysis.
6. Errors are carefully avoided because they lead to the formation of bad habits.
7. Positive reinforcement helps the student to develop correct habits.
8. Students are encouraged to learn to respond to both verbal and nonverbal stimuli.
9. The teacher is regarded as an orchestra leader-conducting, guiding and controlling the students’ behavior in the target language.
10. Learning a foreign language is treated on par with the native language learning.
11. A comparison between the native language and the target language is supposed to help teachers to find the areas with which their students probably experience difficulty: this is expected to help students to overcome the habit of the native language.
12. Language is not seen separated from culture. Culture is the everyday behavior of people who use the target language. One of the teachers’ responsibilities is to present information about that culture in context.
13. Students are taken to be the imitators of the teacher’s model or the tapes.
14. The dialogue is the chief means of presenting vocabulary, structures and it is learned through repetition and imitation.
15. Mimicry, memorization and pattern drills are the practice techniques that are emphasized.
16. Most of the interaction is between the teacher and the learner and it is imitated by the learner.
17. Listening and speaking are given priority in language teaching, and they precede reading and writing.
18. Correct pronunciation, stress, rhythm and intonation are emphasized.
19. The meanings of the words are derived in a linguistic and cultural context and not in isolation.
20. Audio-visual aids are used to assist the students’ ability to form new language habits.
Those are the common features of the Audio-Lingual method of language teaching. Again, there may be substantial variation in practice. The lesson typically begins with a dialogue, which contains the structure and vocabulary of the lesson. The student is expected to mimic the dialogue and eventually memorize it. Often, the class practices the dialogue as a group, and then in smaller groups. The dialogue is followed by pattern drill on the structure introduced in the dialogue. The aim of the drill is to ‘strengthen habits’, to make the pattern ‘automatic’.
The techniques derived from the principles of the Audio-Lingual method are as follows:
1. Students listen to a native-like model such as the teacher of a tape-recorder.
2. Students repeat the new material chorally and individually.
3. Teachers correct students’ errors immediately and directly.
4. Dialogues are memorized by reversing roles between (teacher-student) (student-student).
5. Students are encouraged to change certain key words or phrases in the dialogue.
6. Students write short guided compositions on given topics.
7. Students are encouraged to induce grammatical rules.
8. Students are involved in language games and role-play.
9. Filling-in the blanks exercise is used.
10. Minimal pairs are used.
11. Teachers ask questions about the new items or ask general questions.
12. Substitution drills, chain drills, transformation drills and expansion drills are used.
13. Language laboratory is used for intensive practice of language structures as well as supra segmental features.
14. Dialogue is copied in students’ notebook.
15. Students are asked to read aloud.
SUMMARY OF DIRECT METHOD
Direct Method is the one of many method in teaching. Direct Method usually emphasize on the using of target language. So, if you as the student want to learn English in class to be certain your teacher must use the English language because he uses Direct Method. They should learn to speak and understand target language in every situation. In Direct method also use the drill method too in the class. Drill method is the method by the teacher which is given to the students to imitate the word from teacher. For example: Teacher says ” Hello ” and Students say ” Hello ” etc. Teacher focuses on speaking and listening in class. Role of teacher in Direct Method is “passive” and students must be “active”, we do not need the dialogue, text for reading and translation session. Just given an examples with using target language by the teacher in Direct Method. This method also called Natural Approach and Direct Method provides the learners with practically useful knowledge of language.
The Direct Method has several important points, there are:
- This approach was developed initially as a reaction to the grammar-translation approach in an attempt to integrate more use of the target language in instruction.
- The goal of this method is to enable the students to speak/communicate in target language.
- Lessons begin with a dialogue using a modern conversational style in the target language.
- Material is first presented orally with actions or pictures.
- The mother language is never used. Therefore, there is no translation.
- The preferred type of exercise is a series of questions in the target language based on the dialogue of an anecdotal narrative.
- In this method, teacher emphasizes listening first.
- Students mimic the teacher.
- Mistakes made by students are allowed.
- Questions are answered in the target language.
- Grammar is taught inductively. Rules are generalized from practice and experience with the target language.
- Verbs are used first and systematically conjugated much later after some oral mastery of the target language.
- Advanced students read literature for comprehension and pleasure.
- Literary texts are not analyzed grammatically.
- The culture associated with the target language is also taught inductively.
- Culture is considered an important aspect of learning the language.
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